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Knowledge Level of Kocaeli’s Population Regarding Smoking and Smoking Cessation
Background: A questionnaire was designed and administered to people living in Kocaeli province, Turkey, in order to determine their level of knowledge about smoking before the initiation of a social responsibility project aimed at increasing the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. Material-Method: The sample selection was made on the basis of the population sizes of 12 counties in Kocaeli province; participants over the age of 18 completed the questionnaire over the phone. Results: A total of 2721 participants were included in the study. It was found that the knowledge level about smoking-related diseases was quite high, and the conditions mentioned most frequently by the participants were lung diseases, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Only 2.8% of the subjects reported that they had no information about the harmful effects of smoking. Knowledge level was not different among age groups or educational levels of the participants. The percentage of subjects who believed that smoking cessation was a matter of personal will power was 49%, while only 8.4% reported that medical support was required. The most recalled anti-smoking activities were the recent law prohibiting smoking in enclosed areas and commercials about smoke-free air.
College Student Reactions to Drug Prevention Messages
Advertisements through television, radio, billboards, and magazines have been used to convey anti-drug messages since the 1980s. Many of these ads have used graphic images or scare tactics in an attempt to dissuade young people from using, yet more recently, positively toned messages have become increasingly popular. Positively toned messages tend to focus on activities young people can do besides drug use. Ninety-six college undergraduates were asked to rate a series of both scare tactic or negatively toned ads and positively toned ads across three phases. Results showed the negatively toned ads were perceived as significantly more effective during all three phases of the study.
Internet Addiction and Psychopathological Symptoms in Greek University Students
This study aimed to investigate the impact of Internet addiction on psychiatric symptoms among Greek university undergraduate students. The study was conducted among 1324 students. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, Internet Addiction Test and Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R). Questionnaires were provided online. T-test and Logistic Regression Analysis were used to compare psychiatric symptoms between Internet addicted and non-addicted students. The prevalence of Internet addiction among Greek students is 4.5% and at risk population 66.1%. There were significant differences between the means of psychiatric symptoms in SCL-90-R subscales among addicted and non-addicted subjects. Depression and anxiety appeared to have the most consistent correlation with Internet addiction. Additionally, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hostility/aggression, time in the Internet and quarrel with parents associated with Internet addiction.
Psychometric Properties of Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (Assist V3.0) Among University Students
Background: Urine drug test was in use among the undergraduates in the study area for 4 years. The World Health Organization’s Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was introduced recently. This study aimed to determine the reliability of the self-report and its validity against urine drug test. Methods: This study of diagnostic accuracy was conducted among students of Babcock University, Nigeria, in 2013. Each student had urine drug test and interview with the use Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) on the same day. The laboratory officers and the interviewers were blind to the results of each other. Results: The 2797 participants were mostly 18-20 years (61.2%) and females (65.1%), Urine of 0.1% tested positive to cannabis and Methamphetamine, 0.4% to Opiates. The three-month selfreport gave the prevalence rates of Amphetamine Type Stimulants, Opioids, Diazepam, Cannabis and cocaine at 1.2%, 2.6%, 1.4%, 1.0%, and 0.3% respectively. Against the urine drug test, ASSIST had low sensitivity and high specificity. Its diagnostic accuracy was greater than 95%. Eleven domains of ASSIST had internal correlation coefficients of greater than 0.7. Conclusions: The ASSIST version 3 has acceptable psychometric properties and is valid for use among university students.
A Manual-Guided Therapy for Co-Occurring Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders Delivered by Community Addiction Counselors: Are Outcomes Different from Psychotherapy Delivered by Mental Health Professionals?
Objective: Co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders are common in the general population and even more prevalent in clinical settings. Co-occurring disorders complicate treatment, and are associated with negative outcomes. Broad spectrum and implementation-friendly therapies may be both practical for providers and accessible to many patients with co-occurring disorders in routine addiction care settings. Methods: Within a randomized controlled trial design, 46 patients in methadone maintenance treatment, and with diagnosed cooccurring disorders, were assigned to either a manual-guided integrated therapy (Integrating Combined Therapies; ICT) delivered by onsite addiction counselors or to a non-manualized therapyas-usual (TAU), delivered by onsite mental health professionals. Participants in both study arms were also receiving methadone. Primary outcomes of substance use and psychiatric symptom severity, and therapy retention, were assessed from baseline to 3-, 6-, and 9-months.